Apixaban: A New Player in the Anticoagulant Class

Author(s): Ritesh Agrawal, Pratima Jain, S. N. Dikshit.

Journal Name: Current Drug Targets

Volume 13 , Issue 6 , 2012


Apixaban (BMS-562247-01) is a compound being investigated as an anticoagulant. Apixaban molecule is developed in a joint venture by Pfizer and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Apixaban, a coagulation factor Xa inhibitor, approved in the E.U. in 2011 for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events in adult patients, who have undergone elective hip or knee replacement. The Apixaban based drug will be marketed under the brand name Eliquis® and is expected to rack up annual sales of over $2.5 billion. Apixaban is expected to provide stiff competition to warfarin, a popular blood thinner used in Europe. Warfarin is known to cause some serious side effects in patients. Apixaban, as compared with aspirin, reduced the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in patients experiencing atrial fibrillation by more than 50% (from 3.7% per annum with aspirin to 1.6% per annum with apixaban). Apixaban exhibits superiority to enoxaparin in preventing thrombosis in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery with similar bleeding rates. Apixaban is a highly selective and potent Factor Xa Inhibitor with Ki=0 8nM to both free as well as prothrombinase bound FXa. In X-ray crystal structure studies indicate that the pyrazole N-2 nitrogen atom interacts with backbone of Gln192 and the carbonyl oxygen of carboxamide interacts with NH of Gly216. The orientation of phenyllactum in the S4 region indiacates an edge to face interaction with Trp215, which is positioned between the Tyr99 and Phe174. In the present review, we have tried to cover comparative study of various FXa-inhibitors and point out apixaban in the various aspect including molecular chemistry, physical properties, commercial synthesis, current patent status, crystalline polymorphic forms, molecular receptor interaction, pharmacophore rational, mechanism of action, clinical studies, preclinical, adverse effect, available formulation, dose regimen and co-therapy, thus giving emphasis on medicinal chemistry aspects.

Keywords: Apixaban, anticoagulant, BMS-562247-01, Eliquis®, factor X (FXa), fXa, Factor Xa Inhibitors, MOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, patent, RECEPTOR INTERACTION

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Article Details

Year: 2012
Page: [863 - 875]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/138945012800564059
Price: $58

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