Currently, there is considerable interest in the potential of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-hMSC) for cellular therapy in neurodegenerative disease. BM-hMSCs are easily accessible, avoid host immunological rejection and circumvent many of the contentious ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. Preclinical research has highlighted the therapeutic potential of BM-hMSCs for neurodegenerative conditions. Subsequently, phase I clinical trials have proceeded to assess safety and feasibility of autologous BM-hMSC transplantation for the treatment of neurological disease including stroke, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. As autologous BM-hMSCs transplantation for neurodegenerative disease becomes a more realistic therapeutic option, the impetus for researchers to obtain the intellectual rights to related “inventions” increases. Consequently, the number of patents detailing novel methods of BM-hMSC mobilisation, isolation, expansion and autologous transplantation is expanding rapidly. Here, we review recent progress and patents relating to autologous BM-hMSCs transplantation with particular focus on BM-hMSC cellular therapy for neurodegenerative disease.