Bone Marrow Microenvironment: A Newly Recognized Target for Diabetes- Induced Cellular Damage
Giuseppe Mangialardi, Atsuhiko Oikawa, Carlotta Reni and Paolo Madeddu
Affiliation: Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol Royal Infirmary-level 7, Upper Maudlin St, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom.
Diabetes mellitus is considered a cardiovascular disease owing to its prevalent association with cardiovascular
morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular events are not only more frequent but also complicated with more severe
outcomes in diabetic patients as compared with non-diabetic patients. One mechanism accounting for this difference
consists of the impairment of the regenerative cellular machinery, which contributes to tissue healing. Recent evidence
indicates the contribution of resident progenitor cells in post-ischemic tissue remodeling. In addition, a wide spectrum of
cells from distant sources, including the bone marrow, is attracted and home to the healing tissue. Diabetes affects the
process of mobilization and recruitment as well as intrinsic functional properties of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells.
This review highlights current evidence for diabetes-induced damage of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells in
the endosteal and vascular niches.
Keywords: Bone marrow, diabetes, ischemia, microenvironment, osteoblastic niche, stem cells, vascular niche
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