Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in the ICU. Diagnosis based on
best available criteria remains difficult. Current and novel biomarkers have the potential to speed up and improve the
accuracy of its diagnosis. This review highlights the markers that have gained the most attention to date and aims to
discuss the challenges faced in introducing them at the bedside.
Keywords: Biomarker, C-reactive protein, diagnosis, elastin fibres, endotoxin, procalcitonin, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, ventilator-associated pneumonia
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