Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome with high morbidity and mortality while, myocardial injury, hemodynamic overload,
genetic, neurohormonal, inflammatory and biochemical factors are implicated in the development and progression of the disease.
Interestingly, despite the development of several diagnostic tests, HF diagnosis remains clinical, based on symptoms and signs, while
there is a poor relationship between symptoms and the prognosis of HF. Several biomarkers have recently been examined for their
efficacy to predict outcome and assess prognosis of HF patients. The best studied for its prognostic ability sub-group of biomarkers is
the neurohormones including the natriuretic peptides, the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the
catecholamines. Others sub-groups of biomarkers include inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, extracellular matrix remodeling
markers and myocardial injury markers (such as troponins I and T). Nevertheless, it is difficult to access a single biomarker fulfilling our
need to evaluate prognosis and guiding treatment in acute or chronic HF patients, thus the predictive ability of combined biomarkers is
recently under research. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance of these biomarkers. In the present
review, we will discuss the usefulness and significance of potentials or established biomarkers in HF patients focusing on their ability to
predict adverse events, morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, biological markers, endothelial dysfunction, endothelium, heart failure, inflammation, morbidity, mortality, outcome, prognosis, oxidative stress
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