Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) suffer from increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The ankle
brachial index has been widely used as an easy tool to identify and stratify patients with PAD, however its predictive value remains
limited. Higher levels of inflammatory and prothrombotic biomarkers have been associated with the development and progression of
PAD and recent data suggest that may provide additional information for cardiovascular risk stratification of these patients.
The current review will present available information on functional, genetic and biochemical biomarkers which have been associated
with PAD in cross sectional and large prospective studies and highlight their additive value for risk stratification of these patients.
Keywords: Peripheral arterial disease, inflammation, hemostatic factors, functional markers, arterial disease, cardiovascular morbidity, ankle brachial, prothrombotic, biomarkers, atherosclerotic
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