In a previous in vitro study, the standardized turmeric extract, HSS-888, showed strong inhibition of Aβ aggregation and secretion in vitro, indicating that HSS-888 might be therapeutically important. Therefore, in the present study, HSS-888 was evaluated in vivo using transgenic ‘Alzheimer’ mice (Tg2576) over-expressing Aβ protein. Following a six-month prevention period where mice received extract HSS-888 (5mg/mouse/day), tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) or a control through ingestion of customized animal feed pellets (0.1% w/w treatment), HSS-888 significantly reduced brain levels of soluble (∼40%) and insoluble (∼20%) Aβ as well as phosphorylated Tau protein (∼80%). In addition, primary cultures of microglia from these mice showed increased expression of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-2. In contrast, THC treatment only weakly reduced phosphorylated Tau protein and failed to significantly alter plaque burden and cytokine expression. The findings reveal that the optimized turmeric extract HSS-888 represents an important step in botanical based therapies for Alzheimer’s disease by inhibiting or improving plaque burden, Tau phosphorylation, and microglial inflammation leading to neuronal toxicity.
Alzheimer’s disease, Tau phosphorylation, turmeric, curcuminoids, Aß cascade hypothesis, chronic inflammation
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