Background: Organ dysfunctions and medical complications, such as renal failure, liver impairment,
coagulation disorders, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, may hamper an adequate pain management in
Aim: To summarize current knowledge on pain management in hematological patients presenting major organ
dysfunctions and comorbidity. We also attempted to provide recommendations to optimize analgesia and to minimize side
effects in the setting of medically compromised and frail haematological patients.
Methods: A systematic search of the literature, using relevant key words, was conducted in PubMed.
Results and conclusions: Pain in hematological patients is a common symptom and is often multi-factorial. Most
pharmacotherapeutic measures, including causal therapies, analgesics and adjuvant agents routinely applied in pain
management, may also be used in the setting of clinical frailty and medical comorbidities; however, comprehensive
clinical and functional patient’s evaluations and a careful consideration of expected benefits and potential adverse events
Keywords: Analgesics, anticoagulant oral therapy, blood diseases, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses, coagulation
defects, haematology, heparin, liver dysfunctions, liver cirrhosis, liver failure, medical complications, non steroidal antiinflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, oral anticoagulant therapy, pain, pain management, paracetamol, renal impairment,
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