Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), exemplified by the prototype of the class, ivermectin (IVM), are mainstays of
programs for the control of nematode and arthropod parasites and pests. Since their introduction 30 years ago, research
has revealed that they act on a family of ligand-gated chloride channels gated by glutamate, which is largely restricted to
animals in the phyla Nematoda and Arthropoda. Studies on IVM in model organisms have contributed greatly to our understanding
of ML pharmacology, but our understanding of the basis for differences among species and among MLs in
potency and spectrum remains far from complete.
Keywords: Nematode, parasite, arthropod, glutamate-gated chloride channel, ivermectin
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