Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis: New Insights from OMICS Studies
Cecile Martel, Davide Degli Esposti, Antonin Bouchet, Catherine Brenner and Antoinette Lemoine
Affiliation: Inserm U1004; Universite Paris-Sud 11; Institut Andre Lwoff; PRES Universud-Paris, Institut du Foie 12-14 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier; 94800 Villejuif; France.
Keywords: Biomarker, inflammation, liver, mitochondria, NAFLD, omics, Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver pathology characterized by fat accumulation in a context of metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance. It can be associated with obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia as well as hypertension. NAFLD consists of a large spectrum of hepatic lesions including benign steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Upon chronic stress, NASH would occur via at least “two-hits” process involving modulation of a high number of genes and proteins. Firstly, the accumulation of fat, either due to the increased inflow of free fatty acids or de novo lipogenesis, leads to steatosis. Secondly, when adaptive mechanisms for stress tolerance are overwhelmed, lipotoxicity and chronic inflammation trigger major hepatic damages, mainly via oxidative and inflammatory stress, lipid peroxidation and cell death. As a consequence, all these processes concur to favor steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cancer. Recently, the elucidation of physiopathological signaling cascades controlling NAFLD and NASH benefited from large-scale studies, namely the omics, such as transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. The advent of lipidomics would allow shedding light upon the respective roles of triglyceride and fatty acid metabolites in the lipotoxic liver injury hypothesis for the pathogenesis of NASH. In this review, the contribution of the omics to the understanding of the molecular basis of NASH is discussed that could offer perspectives for novel biomarkers discovery.
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