Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a syndrome recently described in multiple sclerosis patients.
It is characterized by abnormal venous hemodynamics resulting from numerous obstacles in the main veins draining
the central nervous system, usually: the internal jugular veins and the azygous vein. Internal jugular vein is the most
commonly vein affected. Most of the abnormalities in this vein are located at the level of jugular valve. The aim of this
review is to give venographic and schematic descriptions of the most common valvular and perivalvular anomalies found
in the lower part of internal jugular vein.
Keywords: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, internal jugular vein, jugular valve, multiple sclerosis
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