Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Antioxidant Therapy in Sepsis

Author(s): Milagros Rocha, R. Herance, S. Rovira, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Victor M. Victor.

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets

Volume 12 , Issue 2 , 2012

Abstract:

Sepsis and septic shock are the major causes of death in intensive care units. Oxidative damage to mitochondria is involved in the development of organ dysfunction associated with sepsis. This syndrome is caused by an excessive defensive and inflammatory response characterised by a massive increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines. Under normal circumstances, complex interacting antioxidant defense systems control oxidative stress within mitochondria The consequences of sepsis is a systemic damage to the vascular endothelium, impaired tissue and a compromised whole body respiration, antioxidant depletion and mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction with diminished levels of ATP and O2 consumption. In general, ROS are essential to the functions of cells and particularly immune cells, but adequate levels of antioxidant defenses are required to protect against the harmful effects of excessive ROS production. This review considers the process of sepsis from a mitochondrial perspective, discussing strategies for the targeted delivery of antioxidants to mitochondria. We will provide a summary of the following areas: the cellular metabolism of ROS and its role in pathophysiological processes such as sepsis; currently available antioxidants and possible reasons for their efficacy and inefficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated diseases; and recent developments in mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and the future implications for such approaches in patients.

Keywords: Antioxidant, endothelium, immune cells, mitochondria, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, sepsis

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2012
Page: [161 - 178]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/187152612800100189
Price: $58

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