Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) play a rate-limiting role in fatty acid biosynthesis in plants, microbes, mammals
and humans. ACCs have the activity of both biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT), catalyzing carboxylation
of Acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. In the past years, ACCs have been used as targets for herbicides in agriculture
and for drug discovery and development of human diseases, such as microbial infections, diabetes, obesity and cancer. A
great number of small molecule ACC inhibitors have been developed, including natural and non-natural (artificial) products.
These chemicals target BC reaction, CT reaction or ACC phosphorylation. This article provides a comprehensive review
and updates of ACC inhibitors, with a focus on their therapeutic application in metabolic syndromes and malignant
diseases. The patent status of common ACC inhibitors is discussed.
Keywords: Acetyl-CoA carboxylases, cancer, fatty acid synthesis, inhibitors, metabolic syndromes, obesity
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