Experimental Methods for Studying the Interactions between G-Quadruplex Structures and Ligands
Joaquim Jaumot and Raimundo Gargallo
Affiliation: Solution Equilibria and Chemometrics group (Associate Unit UB-CSIC), Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
The present paper reviews the recent advances in and applications of experimental techniques used to study interactions between
G-quadruplex structures and ligands that are potentially of pharmaceutical interest. Several instrumental techniques are used to
study such interactions. The application of spectroscopic techniques such as molecular absorption, circular dichroism, molecular fluorescence,
mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance are reviewed and we discuss the type of information (qualitative or quantitative)
that can be obtained from the use of each technique. Additionally, the application of complementary techniques such as surface
plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry and different methods based on biochemistry is considered. For each technique, the
main applications are presented and they are classified according to the family of the ligand and the type of G-quadruplex forming sequence
(human telomeric or promoter region of oncogenes) considered.
Keywords: G-quadruplex, ligand, review, instrumental techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, molecular absorption, biochemistry, oncogenes
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