Thermophilic Filamentous Fungal Enzyme Systems: Applications in the ‘Agri-Food’ Industries
Deborah M. Waters, Patrick G. Murray, Maria G. Tuohy and John Donlon
Affiliation: Molecular Glycobiotechnology Group, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway, Ireland.
Keywords: Agriculture, bioprocesses, food processing, fungi, industrial applications, thermostable enzymes, fungal thermozymes, oligosaccharide, fermentation, hydrolytic enzymes
Thermophilic fungal enzymes are of increasing research interest due to their industrial relevance. This review presents the potential uses of fungal thermozymes in starch processing, oligosaccharide production, flour standardization, bread making, beer brewing, fruit and vegetable juice processing, wine fermentation and flavor development, tea fermentation, coffee bean preparation and animal feed treatment. Enzyme immobilization is currently used to increase catalytic efficiency, thermostability and allow enzyme recycling in continuous processes. Without this technology, the use of some enzymes industrially would be cost inhibiting. Thermostable fungal hydrolytic enzymes have advantages over their mesophilic counterparts. These thermozymes have increased stability under harsh food processing conditions. Performing enzymatic reactions at higher temperatures allows increased substrate concentrations, lower viscosity, fewer risks of microbial contaminations and higher reactions rates. Examples of commercially used fungal enzymes and those with potential food industry applications are discussed, highlighting both advantages and potential relevance in agri-food processing.
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