It has been challenging to develop methods that induce the repair and regeneration of cartilage because of the unique characteristics of this tissue. Cartilage lacks blood vessels and lymphatic nerve systems. Moreover, chondrocytes are fed by diffusion via the perichondrium, which is helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage. Thus, compared to other tissues, the growth and repair of cartilage are slow. Moreover, it is now widely understood that the physiological development and maintenance of chondrocytes, particularly those in articular cartilage, are dictated by mechanical forces. Consequently, to generate cartilage-like constructs in vitro and cartilage repair in vivo for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes, these cartilagespecific characteristics, including the dependence of chondrocytes on mechanical forces, have to be considered. In recent times, the ability of stem cells to promote tissue regeneration has been the subject of great interest. Thus, in this review, we focus on stem cell-based methods of inducing cartilage regeneration and repair, and show that a deeper understanding of chondrocyte biology and mechanophysiology may lead to novel patents in this field in the future.
Cartilage, stem cells, chondrocyte, mechanical force, mechanotransduction, hydrostatic pressure, lymphatic nerve systems, tissue regeneration, nerve systems, hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrous cartilage, perichondrium, implantation, transplantation, scar inhibitory factor, fibroblastic-scar phenotype, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), polyglycolic acid, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), cord blood-derived somatic stem, meningeal-derived stem cells, cartilage-derived stem cells, placental stem cells, synovium-derived MSCs, biocompatibility, biodegradability, extracellular matrix (ECM), glucuronic acid/N-acetyl glucosamine disaccharide, osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, chondrogenesis, proteoglycans, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), hypoxia, extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), mechanobiology, mechanosensitivity
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603, Japan.