Osmotic treatment describes a preparation step to further processing of foods involving simultaneous transient moisture loss and solids gain when immersing in osmotic solutions, resulting in partial drying and improving the overall quality of food products. The different aspects of the osmotic dehydration (OD) technology namely the solutes employed, solutions characteristics used, process variables influence, as well as, the quality characteristics of the osmodehydrated products will be discussed in this review. As the process is carried out at mild temperatures and the moisture is removed by a liquid diffusion process, phase change that would be present in the other drying processes will be avoided, resulting in high quality products and may also lead to substantial energy savings. To optimize this process, modeling of the mass transfer phenomenon can improve high product quality. Several techniques such as microwave heating, vacuum, high pressure, pulsed electric field, etc. may be employed during or after osmotic treatment to enhance performance of the osmotic dehydration. Moreover new technologies used in osmotic dehydration will be discussed. Patents on osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables are also discussed in this article.
Keywords: Dehydro-freezing, dewatering impregnation soaking, hypertonic solution, infusion, osmotic dehydration, transfer kinetics, DIS, freezing, freeze drying, pasteurization, canning, air drying, Color, Browning Index, illuminance, Texture, PME, Neutraceuticals, Flavor, Aroma, HFCS, Agitation Speed, Polyols, maltose, sucrose, fructose, glucose, Fick's law, ANN, stabilization, PEF
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