Effects of Caloric Restriction on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Rodents and Rhesus Monkeys
Tomas A. Prolla,
Age-related hearing loss (AHL), also known as presbycusis, is a universal feature of mammalian aging and is the most frequently occurring sensory disorder in the elderly population. AHL is characterized by a decline of auditory function and loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea of the inner ear. It has been postulated that AHL occurs gradually as a result of the cumulative effect with aging of exposure to noise, diet, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. However, the molecular mechanisms of AHL remain unclear and no preventative or therapeutic interventions have been developed. A growing body of evidence suggests increased oxidative damage with aging to macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids may play a causal role in aging and age-related diseases. Caloric restriction (CR) extends the lifespan of most mammalian species, delays the onset of multiple age-related diseases, and attenuates both the degree of oxidative damage and the associated decline in physiological function. Here, we review studies on CRs ability to prevent cochlear pathology and AHL in laboratory animals and discuss potential molecular mechanisms of CRs actions.
Keywords: Aging, Age-related hearing loss, Presbycusis, Caloric restriction, Cochlea, Oxidative stress, Mitochondria, Apoptosis
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