Hypercholesterolemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. Control of cholesterol levels through therapeutic drugs, notably statins, have significantly reduced the risk for developing atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases. However, adverse effects associated with therapeutic drugs warrant to find other alternative approaches for managing hypercholesterolemia, especially for those with borderline cholesterol levels. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hypercholesterolemia and reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. This review summarized current patents on food supplements with claims of hypocholesterolemic effects. They can be mainly divided into four categories based on the active ingredients in the supplements: 1) plant sterols or stanols; 2) fiber or polysaccharides; 3) microorganism-derived; and 4) soy protein and phytoestrogens. The efficacy, mechanisms of action and potential side effects are reviewed for each of the four categories. The hypocholesterolemic effects of plant sterols, fiber, Monascus products and soy protein preparations have been consistently demonstrated in clinical trails whereas the efficacy of some probiotic bacteria and phytoestrogens-containing supplements remains to be established. Accumulative clinical data show that plant sterols, fiber, soy protein and phytoestrogen are generally considered safe and cause no obvious side effects. However, additional clinical studies are required to establish the safety profiles of certain probiotic bacteria as food supplements.
Keywords: Cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), bile acids, fplant sterols, plant stanols, fiber, polysaccharides, soy protein, phytoestrogen, isoflavones, probiotic bacteria
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