A biomarker, or biological marker, is defined as a characteristic element that is objectively measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or a pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. Oncology biomarkers are endogenous elements, present in tumor tissues or body fluids, whose amounts or modifications are indicative of tumor state, progression characteristics, and/or response to therapies. During the last decade, improved understanding of mechanisms of carcinogenesis and tumor progression has revealed a great number of potential effective oncology biomarkers with potential to reduce cancer mortality rates by facilitating early diagnosis of this pathology. Classical approaches, based in tissue biopsy, are often limited by restricted access to target tissues. In contrast, peripheral blood profiling has emerged as an attractive and accessible biomarker discovery source. The global market of biomarkers is expected to grow more than double over the next five years, reaching almost 12.8 bn $. Identification of specific and early peripheral blood biomarkers for many types of cancer is still a big challenge. In this paper, we also described some patented biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer.
Keywords: Biomarker, cancer, diagnosis, peripheral blood, Breast cancer, Prostate cancer, Liver cancer, Cervical cancer, Lung cancer, Pancreatic cancer
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