Advances in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders Employing Nanoparticles
Carlos Spuch, Ortolano Saida and Carmen Navarro
Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, University Hospital of Vigo, Hospital of Meixoeiro,Meixoeiro s/n, 36215, Vigo, Spain.
Nanoparticles could potentially revolutionise treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease (PD) and strokes. Nanotechnologies hold great promise in brain therapy as they protect the therapeutic agent and allow its sustained release; the nanoparticles can be used as gene delivery vehicles. The application of neurotrophic factors is able to modulate neuronal survival and synaptic connectivity and it is a promising therapeutic approach for many neurodegenerative diseases, however, due to limitations posed by the restrictive blood brain barrier (BBB), it is very difficult to ensure long-term administration in the brain. Drug delivery to the brain remains the major challenge for the treatment of all neurodegenerative diseases because of the numerous protective barriers surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutics with the capacity to cross the BBB is critically needed for treatment of these diseases. In recent years, nanotechnology had patented new formulations and has evolved as a new treatment for brain diseases, especially for neurodegenerative diseases, where genetically engineered cells can be used to deliver specific growth factors to target cells. Overall, the aim of this review is to summarize the last patents, clinical trials and news related with nanoparticles technology for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, blood brain barrier, brain, central nervous system, drug delivery, nanotechnology, nanoparticles, neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases
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