In nature, microorganisms can present several mechanisms for setting intercommunication and defense. One of these mechanisms is related to the production of bacteriocins, which are peptides with antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocins can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria are of particular interest due to the industrial use of several strains that belong to this group, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms. In this work, we will review recent tendencies in the field of invention and state of art related to bacteriocin production by Gram-positive microorganism. Hundred-eight patents related to Gram-positive bacteriocin producers have been disclosed since 1965, from which 57% are related bacteriocins derived from Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus strains. Surprisingly, patents regarding heterologous bacteriocins production were mainly presented just in the last decade. Although the major application of bacteriocins is concerned to food industry to control spoilage and foodborne bacteria, during the last years bacteriocin applications have been displacing to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and plant disease resistance and growth promotion.
Keywords: Gram-positive bacteria, bacteriocin, heterologous bacteriocin production, heterologous, Lactic acid, lysozymes, exotoxins, homo-fermentative metabolism, hetero-fermentative producing ethanol, lysostaphin, hemolysins, defective bacteriophages, ribosomal protein synthesis, ionophore antibiotics, lipid moieties, bacteriolytic proteins
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport