Recent progress in the development of anthrax vaccines

Author(s): Manpreet Kaur, Rakesh Bhatnagar.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Biotechnology

Volume 5 , Issue 3 , 2011

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Abstract:

Bacillus anthracis is the etiological agent of anthrax. Although anthrax is primarily an epizootic disease; humans are at risk for contracting anthrax. The potential use of B. anthracis spores as biowarfare agent has led to immense attention. Prolonged vaccination schedule of current anthrax vaccine and variable protection conferred; often leading to failure of therapy. This highlights the need for alternative anthrax countermeasures. A number of approaches are being investigated to substitute or supplement the existing anthrax vaccines. These relied on expression of Protective antigen (PA), the key protective immunogen; in bacterial or plant systems; or utilization of attenuated strains of B. anthracis for immunization. Few studies have established potential of domain IV of PA for immunization. Other targets including the spore, capsule, S-layer and anthrax toxin components have been investigated for imparting protective immunity. It has been shown that co-immunization of PA with domain I of lethal factor that binds PA resulted in higher antibody responses. Of the epitope based vaccines, the loop neutralizing determinant, in particular; elicited robust neutralizing antibody response and conferred 97% protection upon challenge. DNA vaccination resulted in varying degree of protection and seems a promising approach. Additionally, the applicability of monoclonal and therapeutic antibodies in the treatment of anthrax has also been demonstrated. The recent progress in the direction of anthrax prophylaxis has been evaluated in this review

Keywords: In vivo challenge, lethal toxin, neutralizing antibodies, protection, protective antigen, therapeutics, vaccines, anthrax toxins, anthrax vaccine adsorbed, edema toxin, plasmids, proteolytic cleavage, furin-like protease

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Article Details

VOLUME: 5
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2011
Page: [148 - 159]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/187220811797579097
Price: $65

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