Rapid advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) indicate that they are becoming increasingly complex. Consequently users and applications are becoming more demanding. Due to unique characteristics of WSNs, like small dimensions and limited resources and capabilities, Quality of Service (QoS) is imposed as one of the key factors of WSNs. In this paper, we surveyed two main approaches for QoS provisioning in WSNs: layered and cross-layer approach. QoS provisioning with layered approach is surveyed in three WSN layers: MAC, network and transport layer. Current developments show that they can be efficiently used for QoS provisioning. However, they consider QoS only as layer specific isolated set of problems and they are highly dependent on the performance of other layers. Cross-layer approach does not have the restrictions as layered approach and hence can dispose with information from all layers of the communication protocol stack. Although it has huge potential to become the most efficient solution for QoS provisioning in WSNs, current development indicate that there are still many issues and challenges that need to be overcome. Since the concept of the QoS is relatively new in WSNs, there are not a large number of patents currently dealing with this issue, however but in coming years a large increase in the number of such patents is expected. Available patents in this domain are described in the paper.
Keywords: Cross-layer approach, quality of service (QoS), wireless sensor network (WSN), QOS SUPPORT IN WSNS, QoS challenges in WSNs, QoS in traditional networks, QoS metrics in WSNs layers, QoS parameters, MAC Layer, QOS PROVISIONING IN WSNS LAYERS
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