A daily supplement of vitamin E is recommended for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in endstage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Vitamin E has been entrusted with therapeutic properties against cardiovascular disease for more than 60 years. Several epidemiological studies and intervention trials have been performed with vitamin E, and some of them showed that it prevents atherosclerosis. For a long time, vitamin E was assumed to act by decreasing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, a key step in atherosclerosis initiation. However, at the cellular level vitamin E interferes with smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet aggregation, monocyte adhesion, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins uptake and cytokine production, all reactions implied in the progression of atherosclerosis. Recent research points out that these effects may be not only the result of the antioxidant activity of vitamin E but also of its distinct molecular actions. These biological properties of vitamin E may allow to design better strategies for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, with a potential exploitation of vitamin E supplements in primary and secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events in all uremic patients. In this review, we also outline relevant patents on vitamin E and lipoxygenase inhibitors.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, hemodialysis, 5-lipoxygenase, oxidative stress, vitamin E, Oxygen Free Radicals, Lipoxygenases, LDL oxidation, Lymphocytes, high-dose supplements, outcomes
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