Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury in Critical Care Medicine: A Literature Review Based on Recent Patent Applications
John Richard Prowle
Affiliation: SW Thames Renal&Transplantation Unit, St Helier Hospital, Wrythe Lane, Carlshalton, Surrey.SM5 1AA, UK.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) complicates up to 30% of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions and has been independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. Current treatment of AKI is frustrated by delay and imprecision in diagnosis when based on traditional biochemical markers of renal function such as serum creatinine. These factors have contributed to the lack of effective interventions to avert or ameliorate AKI. Development of novel urine and blood biomarkers for AKI may allow earlier diagnosis of its occurrence and severity. Clinical application of these biomarkers will meet an unmet need and is likely to greatly influence the management of critically ill patients with, or at risk off AKI in the future. The clinical and commercial importance of this topic is reflected in a large number of recent patent applications in this field. In this review, I discuss evolving technologies for diagnosis of AKI based on a systematic search for recent patent applications or awards regarding biomarkers for diagnosis of acute kidney injury applicable to an intensive care setting.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury, biomarker, diagnosis, patent, critical illness, AKI Pathophysiology, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, Netrin-1, p Glutathione s-Transferase, Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1[, Creatinine, Cystatin-c, Conventional diagnosis
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