Ceria-Based Materials for Hydrogen Production Via Hydrocarbon Steam Reforming and Water-Gas Shift Reactions
Christos M. Kalamaras,
Angelos M. Efstathiou.
This review paper provides an overview of the use of ceria-based catalytic materials towards the industrial hydrogen production via the hydrocarbon steam reforming and the water-gas shift reaction routes with a focus on representative patenting activities mainly in the last 10 years. We first introduce the basic mechanisms of catalytic hydrocarbon steam reforming and conversion of carbon monoxide by steam towards a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen at low and high temperatures, the main synthetic approaches of ceria material and its basic structural properties responsible for its catalytic activity exhibited towards the present reactions. In the case of hydrocarbon steam reforming, emphasis is given on the (i) sulphur tolerance of catalysts developed, (ii) efforts to reduce the reaction temperature, (iii) use of the “Absorption Enhanced Reforming” concept, and (iv) its application in fuel cells for power generation. In the case of water-gas shift reaction, progress in catalyst developments for low- and high- temperature applications is discussed. Future directions in these fields have been suggested.
Keywords: Hydrogen production, CeO2-based catalysts, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, water-gas shift, WGS, auto-thermal reforming, ATR, absorption enhanced reforming, AER, fuel cell
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