Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis
Gyan P. Mishra, Viral Tamboli, Jwala Jwala and Ashim K. Mitra
Affiliation: Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City. 2464 Charlotte Street, Kansas City, MO 64108-2718.
Keywords: Allergy, conjunctivitis, mast-cell, cytokines, antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids, immunomodulatory agents, GPC, IgE, SAC, PAC, VKC, AKC, OCULAR ALLERGIES, T-LYMPHOCYTE, dendritic, B cells, macrophages, Th-2, CD4+, CD8+, Mast Cells, Allergic Eye Diseases, APC, FcRI, LTC4, PAF, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, bepostatine, Lodoxamide, NSAIDS, Durezol, CsA, MMF, ISS-ODN, TNF-, cAMP, LPR, Syk, COPD, RNA, HRH1 mRNA and, JAK-3
Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
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