Self-Assembling Peptides: Implications for Patenting in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering
Pradeep Kumar, Viness Pillay, Girish Modi, Yahya E. Choonara, Lisa C. du Toit and Dinesh Naidoo
Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193 Johannesburg, South Africa.
In this paper, a comprehensive review of recent patents concerning the molecular self-assembly of peptides, peptide amphiphiles and peptidomimetics into molecules through nanoarchitectures to hydrogels is provided. Their potential applications in the field of drug delivery and tissue engineering have been highlighted. The design rules of this rapidly growing field are centered mainly on the construction of peptides in the form of peptide amphiphiles, aromatic short peptide derivatives, all-amino acid peptide amphiphiles, lipidated peptides with single and multiple alkyl chains and peptide-based block copolymers and polymer peptide conjugates. The interest in patenting of self-assembling peptides is also driven by their type (I, II, III and IV) and their ability to form well-regulated highly-ordered structures such as β- sheets/β-hairpins, α-helices/coiled coils and to hierarchically self-organize into supra-molecular structures. The applicability of these systems in cell culture scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug and gene delivery and as templates for nanofabrication and biomineralization has inspired various groups over the globe. This resulted in development of selfassembling peptides as synthetic replacements of biological tissues, designing materials for specific medical applications, and materials for new applications such as diagnostic technologies. Furthermore, biologically derived and commercially available systems are also discussed herein along with a brief account of various awarded and pending patents in the past 10 years. An overview of the diversity of the patent applications is also provided for self-assembling systems based on nano- and/or micro-scale such as fibers, fibrils, gels, hydrogels, vesicles, particles, micelles, bilayers and scaffolds.
Keywords: Self-assembly, peptides, peptide amphiphiles, patent, drug delivery, tissue engineering, peptidomimetics, nanofabrication, biomineralization, fibers, hydrogels, ATP synthase, macroscopic, microscopic, hydrogen, van der Waals interactions, stackings, proteins, Self-assembling peptide, hairpins, immunogenic, regenerative medicine, RGD ligands, IKVAV ligand, diphenylalanine, aromatic groups, FMOC, naphthalene, enzyme action, Fmoc-RGD, stacking, amphipathic, sheet peptides, cyclic peptides, acylation, hydrophobicity, micelles, polypeptides, nanostructures, RADA, hydrophobic, Coiled Coils, IKVAV, YIGSR, pro-collagens, Matrigel, ABM, grafting, DFDBA, osteoblasts, fibroblasts, PepGen P-15, ELPs, VPGXG, ELP, PuraMatrix, ECM, OP-1s, collagen, Bioseeds-S, scaffolds, Zuotin, Z-DNA, amphiphilic solvents, Lysozyme, USPTO, phosphoserine, aspartic acid, peptide-amphiphile, Thermoresponsive gels, Nanofibers, wound healing, adhesion, prophylactic, Tissue repair, bioactives, Cell culture, osteogenic cell, mineralization, BMP-2, Encapsulation, epitope, Bone marrow
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