HIV-1 Nef Protein Visits B-Cells via Macrophage Nanotubes: A Mechanism for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Pathogenesis?
Susanna L. Lamers, Gary B. Fogel, Leanne C. Huysentruyt and Michael S. McGrath
Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Medicine, Positive Health Program, University of California, San Francisco, California, 94110, USA.
This letter refers to the recent demonstration that HIV-1 infected macrophages form specialized conduits that connect to B-cells (1). The conduit selectively transports the HIV-1 nef protein, providing nef with numerous means to interfere with cellular processes. Currently, no consideration of the connection between the conduit and the development of AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) has been offered. ARL is one of the primary causes of death in the HIV-infected population and is related to B-cell proliferation and activation. In this letter we discuss several studies that link HIVinfected macrophages and specific forms of the nef protein to the development of ARL. The conduits discovered by Xu et al.  may lead to a better understanding of how HIV infection results in lymphomagenesis.
Keywords: HIV-1, AIDS-related lymphoma, macrophages, HIV-1 nef protein, Pathogenesis, B-cells, lymphomagenesis, virus-specific immunoglobin responses (IgG2 and IgA), CD40-dependent activation, metastatic, cytokines, cytidine deaminase-associated DNA, modification, Epstein Barr virus (EBV), tumorogenesis, immortalization, proliferation, tumor biopsies, Monocyte-derived, inflammation, malignancy, IFN, IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, viral load, MHC class II receptors, trans-golgi network (TGN), lysosomal degradation, myristoylation domain, cytosolic, dementia, mutation rate, RNAs
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