Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is an integral membrane protein found in “purple membrane” (the Archaea cell membrane) mainly in Halobacteria. This protein absorbs green light (wavelength 500-650 nm, with the absorption maximum at 568 nm) and converts it into an electrochemical gradient. This gradient in turn is used for ATP production. The ability of BR to convert light energy into chemical energy or sunlight into electricity has been used in different applications mainly optical appliances but also for therapeutic/medical applications and research. This review surveys some of these applications that have been patented in the last five years.
Keywords: Bacteriorhodopsin, archaea, halobacteria, medicinal, neuron, optical, integral membrane protein, retinylidene proteins, proton gradient, Asp85, photoisomerization, Reprotonation, fraud-proof optical data, solid-state optical switches, misaminoacylated tRNAs, cleavable marker, retinal blindness
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