Immunization by vaccination is the most suitable and safest method for preventing infectious diseases in the poultry worldwide. Vaccines alone cannot effectively protect birds from variety of pathogens under field conditions. The combined use of potent immunostimulants in vaccines is an alternative to increase the efficacy of vaccines that can be achieved by the development of better adjuvant. One such adjuvant is cytokine; cytokines have been used extensively as adjuvant in vaccines and are responsible for the type and extent of an immune response following vaccination. Although the innate immune system in birds is not fully characterized but their immune system is very much similar to that of mammals, and moreover with the recent discovery of a number of avian cytokine genes it is now possible to study their effectiveness in enhancing the immune response during vaccination. This review focuses on the recent studies and developments involving the role of immunomodulating agents especially cytokines of avian origin in poultry vaccines.
Keywords: Avian cytokines, vaccine, adjuvant, immunostimulant, infection, pathogens, vaccination, hygienic practices, Antimicrobial agents, exotic Newcastle disease, avian influenza, Chicken anemia virus, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infect poultry repeatedly, serotypes, Aluminum hydroxide (alum), IgE mediated, allergic reactions, heterologous strains, dendritic cells, cytotoxic cells, B cells, CYTOKINES, anti-body-mediated, chronic microbial infe, polypeptides, immunomodulator, kinase inhibitory region, lung epithelium, interferon-, proliferation, veterinary vaccine, anti-oncogenic properties, bioassays, mammalian cells, E. coli, macrophage-activating factor, ovo vaccines, orthologues, ligands, fowl-pox virus, Marek's disease, Canarypox virus, quail interferon, embryo, amniotic cavity
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