Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a major antioxidant principle found in human body which plays a vital role in maintaining several biochemical pathways of body. It acts as a potential mediator in transferring electrons in oxidoreductive reactions of electron transport chain. Chemically, it is a basic quinone containing moiety having a large and high molecular weight structure. Deficiency of this in body leads to several potential disorders like dysfunctions in cellular energetics, neurological degeneration, higher oxidative stress induced damage, breast cancer etc. The high molecular weight and lipophilicity of CoQ10 makes it poorly water soluble and consequently leads to low systemic availability. Several advancements have been made to enhance the bioavailability of CoQ10 using various approaches like size reduction, solubility enhancement (by solid dispersion, prodrug, complexation, ionization) and use of novel drug carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions and self-emulsifying system. The primary objective of the present review is to assemble patents representing the various approaches used for enhancement of CoQ10 bioavailability.
Keywords: Coenzyme Q10, antioxidant, neurological degeneration, liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, self-emulsifying system, quinone, lipophilic, ubiquinol, amorphous, zirconium oxide, nanodispersions, polyethylene oxide, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, croscarmellose, dual absorption, Ubichromanol-9, Cyclodextrins, Amphiphilic, lysolecithin, phosphatidylcholine, soft gel capsule, polyhydric alcohol, Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, isotropic mixture, lauroglycol, reticuloendothelial system, poly (lactide-co-glycolide), didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Polyamidoamine
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