The main objective of this study was to compare the behaviour of drug release among the famotidine polymorphs prepared by using various additives and solvents, by solvent evaporation method. The famotidine polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymorphs with different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were prepared by using solvent evaporation method. In these polymorphs of different concentrations 1% w/v polymorphs showed better release. Similarly, famotidine polymorphs of Tween 80 with different concentrations, polyethylene glycol 1% w/v and methanol was prepared. Famotidine polymorphs prepared the PVP (1% w/v) showed better drug release and solubility. DSC, FTIR, SEM and XRD studies were carried out. DSC studies revealed that PVP polymorphs were found to stable compared to other polymorphs. FTIR studies of the polymorphs prepared indicated that there was an interaction found in all polymorphs except PVP polymorphs indicating the absence of drug-additive interaction. SEM studies of PVP and methanol polymorphs revealed that they are tabular and prismatic and columnar respectively. These changes in morphology were due to variations in face dimensions and also properties of additives and solvent used in the preparation. XRD studies revealed that there is an increase in crystallinity in methanol polymorphs when compared to PVP polymorphs and pure drug. The mechanism of drug release was determined using zero order, first order and Hixon-Crowel equations. From the drug release kinetics these polymorphs followed first order and Hixon-Crowel release kinetics, exhibited fair linearity in their dissolution data. Further, in vivo studies were carried out for the evaluation of antiulcer activity. Based upon the drug release pattern and its kinetics only two of the prepared polymorphs of famotidine i.e. famotidine PVP polymorphs and famotidine methanol polymorphs were selected for animal studies. Antiulcer studies were carried out using pylorus ligation model and estimation of antioxidant parameters was also done. In these studies also polymorphs of PVP showed better antiulcer activity and also significant antioxidant activity when compared to famotidine (pure) and famotidine methanol polymorphs. Hence in the present investigation, amongst the various polymorphs of famotidine prepared, PVP polymorphs were found to possess good dissolution behaviour, stability and absence of drug additive interactions. Further, in vivo studies confirmed the better therapeutic action of these PVP polymorphs over the pure drug and famotidine methanol polymorphs.
Keywords: Famotidine, polymorphs, antiulcer activity, antioxidant activity, Tween 80, DSC, FTIR, SEM, XRD, Polymorphism, PVP, Anti Ulcer, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione, IR analysis, Visible spectrophotometer, Elico, SMP, calorimeter
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