Microalgae Cultivation Using Photobioreactors for Biodiesel Production
Collin S. Breitman and James T. Hsu
Affiliation: Rm D318 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA.
Keywords: Biodiesel oils, bioreactor design, CO2 sequestering, flue gas utilization, microalgae, photobioreactor, Microalgae Cultivation, agitation, sedimentation, bioengineering, chemical engineering, petroleum-derived transport fuels, Oil production, micronutrients, growth media, mechanical agitation, heating effects, U-shaped connectors, Photo-Inhibition, light-dark cycling, Glass projections, Glass baffles, Raceway Ponds, Vertical Tubular Photobioreactor, Horizontal Tubular Photobioreactor, Helical Tubular Photobioreactor, Conical Helical Tubular Photobioreactor, Flat Plate Photobioreactor, Modular Flat Plate Photobioreactor, Bubble Column Photobioreactor, split airlift, Internally Illuminated Photobioreactor, light emitting diode (LED), Innovative bioreactor, terrestrial solar radiation, BG-11, MJ, thin layer chromatography HPLC, gas chromatography, lipid-soluble fluorescent dye, Flue Gas, High pressure mercury lamp, metal halide lamp, high pressure sodium lamp, Extremophiles, Genetic Engineering, bio-manipulation
Throughout the past ten years global society has more of a vested interest in the research and development of sustainable energy sources. Carbon dioxide fixation and collection of biodiesel oils through the utilization of microalgae can not only possibly help the reduction of flue gas emissions, but also have the potential to provide clean energy. Microalgae growth is affected by numerous factors influencing the yield and quality of biodiesel; such as agitation and mixing, light source, sedimentation, and other growth inhibiting or inducing factors. Specifically, photobioreactor design is a major area of concern, and thus different types of reactors are examined along with innovative patents attempting to overcome such obstacles of algae growth. These patents along with current research give an overall look at the progression of this field of study and the areas some researchers and scientists are heading toward in the future. This review article encompasses an overview and background of the whole microalgae growth and harvesting process along with reviewing many of the photobioreactors designs now being utilized in present research.
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