Research and Applications of Shear Thickening Fluids
Jie Ding, Weihua Li and Shirley Z. Shen
Affiliation: Human Protection and Performance Division, Defence Science&Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend Victoria 3207, Australia.
Shear thickening fluids (STFs) have been studied extensively, and an enormous number of patents have been generated due to their potential for commercial applications. STFs draw continued attention as they are considered possible candidate materials for liquid body armour and sporting protective clothing because of their unique properties. This paper presents a review of the “state of the art” STF technology. The ingredient materials, fabrication methods and basic models which describe STF behaviors are discussed briefly. An outline of the patenting activities in the field of STF materials, including the effects of the different particles and their volume fraction in the suspensions on the critical shear rate of shear thickening is presented. Most of the specific patent applications, particularly in body armour, as well as other industrial applications, such as smart structures, and devices with adaptive stiffness and damping, are also summarized. Recent advances, including the effects of particle surface properties, relationship to carrier fluids, electric or magnetic fields applied on the transition of STFs are included in the review. The possibilities of wider applications or designs depend upon a deeper understanding of STFs, as well as the potential of novel STFs to provide protection applications are an impetus for future research.
Keywords: Body armour, damping, field activated, nanoparticles, Newtonian fluid, shear thickening fluids, smart structure, viscosity, patents, sporting protective clothing, STF technology, fabrication methods, shear thickening, shear rate, non-Newtonian fluid, dilatant fluid, lubricant, interparticle forces, hydrodynamic forces, hydyoclusters, colloidal dispersion, hydrodynamic lubrication forces, repulsive forces, rheological, rheo-optical, neutron experiments, computer simulations, oscillatory shear flow, rheograms, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), suspended phase, phase volume, particle size (distribution), particle shape, rate of deformation), Extensive patenting activity, titanium oxide, calcium carbonate, cornstarch, polyvinyl alcohol-sodium borate, gum arabic, borate ions, guar gum, polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene glycol (EG), polyethylene glycol (PEG), nanotechnology, rubber precursors, foam composite, multiphase micro-structure, amphiphilic polymer, shear-gelling, hydrodynamical clustering, threshold, typical suspensions, surface properties (e.g. hydro-philic or hydrophobic), near-sedimentation packing fractions, Electrorheological (ER), magnetorheological (MR), shear viscosity, magnetic polarization induced, dipole-dipole interaction forces, shock absorbers, engine mounts, clutches, brakes, polishing machines, torque transducers, particle-fluid chemistry, viscosity-shear rate curves, volume fractions, mouthguard, dental damage, energy dissipative construction, viscoelastic damper, controlled pulse fracturing (CPF), propellant, aeronautics, medical equipment, surgical gowns, surgical gloves, surgical masks, STF fabrics, KEVLAR fibres, inter-fibre friction, back face deformation (BFD), ballistic protection, aramid fabrics, Fragment simulation projectile, stab resistance, impact zone, Microscopy, damage zone, polymeric filaments, mechanical interaction, novel materials, Kevlar target, STF-Kevlar targets, novel engineered material dee-three-oh (d3o), impact energy., magnetorheologic response,, elastomeric materials
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