Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies.
Alcohol hangover, methodology, guidelines, research, Alcohol-induced hangover, Alcohol consumption, Intoxication, Blood alcohol concentration, Pathology, Alcohol Hangover Research Group (AHRG), Ethanol, Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), Flushing phenotypes, Hangover severity, Blinding, Nausea, Dizziness, Non-alcoholic beer, Vodka, Placebo, Hangover susceptibility, Hangover symptom count, Hangover Frequency, Slutske's scale, Trouble sleeping, Hangover Scale, Hair-of-the-dog, Heavy alcohol use, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Psychomotor, Heavy drinking, Congeners, Alcoholic beverages, Bourbon
Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.