The vast majority of pathogens invade the body through or establish infections in the mucosal tissues. Development of vaccines to combat mucosal infections represents a top priority. Mucosal immunization has recently attracted much interest as a means of generating protective immunity against mucosal pathogens. Conversely, only very few mucosal vaccines are presently approved for human use. The development of a broad range of mucosal vaccines will necessitate the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems. Over the past decade, a number of immunomodulatory agents, including toxin based adjuvants, Toll like receptor (TLR) mimetics and non TLR-targeting immunostimulators as well as delivery systems have shown promise for mucosal administration in experimental animals. However, their possible use in humans remains to be established. This paper attempts to provide a brief overview of the mucosal immunization and adjuvants with an emphasis on mucosal adjuvants in or close to clinic.
Keywords: Mucosal immunity, vaccine, adjuvant, mucosal adjuvant, mucosal vaccine, toll like receptor
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