Immunoisolation is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. During the past decades a number of different approaches of immunoisolation have been described. The approaches include (i) intravascular devices, which are anatomized to the vascular system, (ii) extravascular macrocapsules, which are mostly diffusion chambers transplanted at different sites, and (iii) extravascular microcapsules. Many reviews describing the advantages and pitfalls of the different approaches of immunoisolation have been described during recent years. Almost none of these reviews however describe the technical advances and (pre)clinical results described in the numerous patents on the subject. Therefore this review presents the recent novelties described in patents related to immunoisolation of tissue.
Keywords: Microencapsulation, macroencapsulation, islets, diabetes, alginate, immunoisolation, insulin, vascularization, bioartificial
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