The prevalence of diabetes in the United States is rising. As HIV-infected people live longer, they become more susceptible to chronic diseases such as diabetes. Additionally, some antiretroviral agents have been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and increased diabetes risk. To estimate the burden and trends of diabetes among hospitalized HIV-infected persons in the United States, we used data from the 1994-2004 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative survey of inpatient hospitalizations. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for demographic and hospital characteristics using logistic regression. Between 1994 and 2004, the rate of hospitalizations with a diabetes code per 100 hospitalizations increased from 3.9 to 8.4 (2.2 fold) among HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-uninfected people, the corresponding rate increased from 12.8 to 17.7 (1.4 fold). Since 1998, the mean age of HIVinfected hospitalized people with a diabetes diagnosis rose from 45 to 66 years and became similar to that of HIVuninfected people. Compared to 1994-1996, in 2002-2004 the probability of hospitalizations with diabetes increased among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons (OR, 1.92, 95% CI, 1.79-2.05 and OR, 1.38, 95% CI, 1.36-1.40, respectively). Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes in hospitalized HIV-infected persons, it will be important to monitor the trends closely in addition to the effects of different types of antiretroviral regimens, in order to optimize comprehensive long-term care of HIV-infected persons.