The aim of the work was to evaluate the levels of angiogenin and VEGF in children and adolescents with longstanding diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) in relation to the duration of the disease. The study was performed on a group of 64 patients diagnosed with DM1. 52 healthy children and adolescents volunteered as the control group. Patients with duration of diabetes less than 5 years (group 1) were younger, but their age at the onset of the disease was older. Moreover they had lower 24 hour urine albumin excretion as well as angiogenin and VEGF serum levels with regard to the group of patients with longer, exceeding 5 years duration of the disease (group 2). Detailed statistical analysis revealed that the patients with shorter duration and no complications were characterized by a statistically significant lower serum angiogenin and VEGF levels in relation to the patients over 5 years from diagnosis and showing complications (group 2A). Statistical analysis revealed that the group 1 patients without complications were characterized by the highest levels of angiogenin and VEGF in relation to the group 2B patient. Our results suggest that evaluation of pro-angiogenic factors at early stages of diabetes may become an additional prognostic marker when assessing the risk of retinopathy development in children and adolescents with long-standing DM1. Possibly, in future, anti-angiogenic therapy will become a substantial element in prevention of diabetic retinopathy in young patients with long-standing DM1.This review article also discussed some recent patent related to the field.
Keywords: Angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor, children and adolescents, type 1 diabetes mellitus, retinopathy
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