Utility of Nicotiana tabacum Cell Suspension Cultures Expressing Human CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 to Study the Oxidative Metabolism of the Herbicide 14C-Fluometuron
Maren Anne Breuer,
The metabolism and biotransformation of the 14C-labeled phenylurea herbicide fluometuron was examined using tobacco cell suspension cultures transformed separately with human cyp1a1, cyp1a2 and cyp3a4, and corresponding non-transformed cultures in order to screen and predict metabolic patterns. Experimental parameters modified were concentration of 14C-fluometuron, incubation period, and additional application of inhibitor carbaryl. Media and cell extracts were analyzed by radio-TLC and radio-HPLC, isolated metabolites by LC-MS, and non-extractable residues by combustion. During 48 hours, the CYP1A1 expressing cultures metabolized 90.0 % of applied fluometuron, while the nontransgenic controls transformed 67.0 %. The CYP1A2 expressing cultures exhibited highest rates (95.1 %), CYP3A4 expressing cultures lowest rates (43.0 %). The primary metabolites identified were mono-demethyl (main metabolite in controls) and di-demethyl fluometuron (mainly in CYP1A2 cultures), besides a non-identified primary product (mainly in CYP1A1 cultures); metabolic profiles differed distinctly among cultures. After addition of carbaryl, rates of fluometuron decreased noticeably in controls and not in CYP3A4 expressing cultures. This may indicate inhibition of endogenous tobacco P450s involved in fluometuron metabolism but not of CYP3A4. Additionally, the P450-transgenic cultures proved to be valuable tools to produce large amounts of metabolites for thorough identification.
Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum, metabolism, biotransformation, radio-TLC, radio-HPLC, human cyp1a1 cyp1a2, fluometuron
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