Background: The number of publications dealing with measurement of the quality of life and health in the area of drug dependence has increased in recent years. Its main application is as an indicator of the effectiveness of intervention in harm reduction, although there are also comparative and methodological studies. Data Sources and Study Selection: The literature was reviewed to identify studies on abuse or substance dependence and HRQoL. The bibliographic sources used for the review are PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo. Additional articles were identified from references to relevant articles. Results: 111 articles were identified. The HRQoL of people who abuse or are dependent on substances is lower than the general population. The presence of physical and psychiatric comorbidity also affects patients dependent on opiates, and substitution programs improve HRQoL. Conclusion: The measurement of HRQoL in the area of drug dependence is a suitable complement for finding out the deterioration caused by substance use, abuse or dependence. It is also a useful indicator for evaluating therapeutic results in this population.