Titanium dioxide represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as antibacterial agent because of strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity and chemical stability under ultraviolet light (λ < 387nm), whose energy exceeds the band gap of 3.3 eV in the anatase crystalline phase. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light (λ > 400 nm) should allow the main part of the solar spectrum, even under poor illumination of interior lighting, to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by metal-ion implantation, reducing of TiO2, nonmetal doping or sensitizing of TiO2 with dyes. This paper reviews preparation methods of doped-TiO2 with metallic and nonmetallic species, including various types of dopants and doping methods currently available. The mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis in the presence of TiO2 is also discussed.
Doped-TiO2, metal-doping, monmetal-doping, TiO2 preparation methods, heterogeneous photocatalysis
Department of Chemical Technology, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952-Gdansk, Poland.