Aptamers, the oligonucleotides (DNA/RNA) that bind to target molecules with high specificity and affinity, have been a focus of therapeutic research for the last two decades. The magnitude of scientific and commercial interest shown for aptamers is not surprising because aptamers have several advantages over other curative modalities, especially antibodies. Patent activity in this field has also shown an exponential growth. Aptamers against a broad range of diseasecausing pathogens and proteins have been patented. These have potential use as a biomarker, therapeutics and diagnostics. As drugs they have shown commendable results in cell and animal models, a few of them undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss upon all important patents filed on therapeutic aptamers and SELEX technology employed to synthesize them. We have classified them in categories based upon their target or the diseased condition they apt for. These patents provide insight into the development that occurred in transformation of aptamers as therapeutic entities and reinforces the potential they have.