Alpha-emitting radionuclides provide effective cell-killing properties and have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment. The number of different alpha emitters having suitable physical and chemical characteristics for applications in medicine is relatively few. Development and testing of new radiopharmaceuticals requires a reliable supply of alpha- emitters in high quality, with timely delivery, but at reasonable cost. Applications and commercially availability of the following alpha emitters are reviewed: Actinium-225, bismuth-213, astatine-211, radium-223, bismuth-212, radium- 224, radium-226, terbium-149, and thorium-227. Nations with the capability to produce or to support production of alpha emitters should be actively involved in promoting the development of production capabilities and supporting applications research. Recommendations for improving the supply of these alpha emitters include an increased United States government commitment (through funding and joint-agency cooperation), establishing new production capabilities, and strengthening federal-private partnerships with companies involved to help to meet critical needs, both in the U.S. and elsewhere.
Keywords: Alpha-Emitting, Radionuclides, cancer treatment, radiopharmaceuticals, Actinium-225, radium-223, bismuth-212, Alpha emitters
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