Different artificial reefs have been invented in recent times to create or to improve fishing grounds. Nevertheless, the use of harmful illegal trawl equipment has become so prevalent that the protection of over-exploited coastal areas has lead some authors to develop another type of artificial reef specially designed to avoid it. A review of some of the latest patents of two types of artificial reefs for marine life (creative and protective) is presented. These designs have been chosen because they introduce a new shape, material and/or behaviour and will give the readers a wide view of the artificial reefs on offer. Finally, a special design, with anti-trawling purposes, whose use is compatible with open water anchoring zones, is also introduced.
Keywords: Artificial reef, anchoring, fishing grounds, illegal trawling
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