Parkinsons disease (PD) is an age associated neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized as a movement disorder. Till date there have been several treatment options for PD involving either surgical or pharmacological approaches. Levodopa (L-dopa) therapy has been the most popular pharmacological treatment for PD. But the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in chronic L-dopa therapy has prompted the utilization of alternative drugs including dopamine receptor agonists, anti-cholinergic medications, monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors, catechol-Omethyl transferase inhibitors and amantadine which constitute the “L-dopa-sparing strategies”. Recently, there have been proposals regarding the utilization of coenzyme Q10, creatine and minocycline as pharmacological options. Although, most of the existing therapies are intended to provide symptomatic relief, their neuroprotective ability has not been completely substantiated in humans. In this review, the existing therapies of PD with their shortcomings are discussed and some of the recent patents that could open up newer options for PD therapy are highlighted.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, pharmacotherapy, L-dopa, monoamine oxidase, catechol- O-methyl transferase, dopamine agonists, dyskinesia, clinical trials
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