Parkinsons disease (PD) is the second leading age-related degenerative brain disease in the world affecting millions of people. This neurological disorder disrupts the quality of life of patients and their families, exerts an enormous emotional and physical strain on caregivers, and has a large cost for society. Moreover, the increasing numbers of elderly people in the population will result in a sharp increase in the prevalence of PD. The understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment has advanced at a very impressive rate during past decades. Nevertheless, PD is still fatal and there is at present no cure for it. Furthermore, there are no proven therapies for prevention of PD and although evidence exists of risk and protective factors, this is not strong enough to warrant specific measures in an attempt to diminish risk or enhance protection. Drug development programmes are engaged in finding neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies or, even better, discovering drugs able to rejuvenate the dopaminergic neurons. The latest developments in this promising field will be discussed with reference to the current literature together with the advantages and pitfalls of suggested drugs. Finally, an analysis of the role of various dietary recommendations, lifestyle, environmental and other factors in reducing the risk of PD is carried out.