The Metabolic Syndrome denotes the clustering of several metabolic abnormalities that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Among other terms, the syndrome is also called Syndrome X or The Insulin Resistance Syndrome. The main features of the syndrome are obesity, insulin resistance(SLASH)hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance(SLASH)type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This syndrome is estimated to affect over 30 million Americans, and its prevalence is predicted to increase dramatically over the next two decades. Because of the complexity of the syndrome, the underlying cause and contributing factors leading to the development of the syndrome have been difficult to unravel and is an area of intense investigation. It is well recognized that the development of the syndrome has a genetic and environmental component, which has lead to the implementation of strategies for the identification of individuals at risk for the disease and for intervention to reduce the risk factors in patients with the disease. However, it is unclear as to whether there is one target for effective pharmaceutical intervention, or whether polypharmacy is required to treat the individual features of the syndrome. This article will review the pathophysiology of the disease and the current and future pharmaceutical approaches for effective disease management.
Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Novel Treatment Strategies, impaired glucose tolerance, plasminogen activator, melanocortin, macrovascular disease, hormone sensitive lipase, fungal metabolite, intracellular LCFA CoAs, thermogenesis, endogenous serum leptin, Postprandial hyperglycemia
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